(PHP 5 >= 5.3.0, PHP 7, PECL intl >= 1.0.0)
grapheme_substr — Return part of a string
$length] ) : string
Return part of a string
The input string. Must be valid UTF-8.
Start position in default grapheme units. If $start is non-negative, the returned string will start at the $start'th position in $string, counting from zero. If $start is negative, the returned string will start at the $start'th grapheme unit from the end of string.
Length in grapheme units.
If $length is given and is positive, the string returned will contain
at most $length grapheme units beginning from $start (depending on the
length of string). If $length is given and is negative, then
that many grapheme units will be omitted from the end of string (after the
start position has been calculated when a start is negative). If $start
denotes a position beyond this truncation,
FALSE will be returned.
Returns the extracted part of $string.
Example #1 grapheme_substr() example
$char_a_ring_nfd = "a\xCC\x8A"; // 'LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH RING ABOVE' (U+00E5) normalization form "D"
$char_o_diaeresis_nfd = "o\xCC\x88"; // 'LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH DIAERESIS' (U+00F6) normalization form "D"
print urlencode(grapheme_substr( "ao" . $char_a_ring_nfd . "bc" . $char_o_diaeresis_nfd . "O", 2, -1 ));